OpenAI Concept Cheat Sheet

Author: Etienne Oosthuysen

The world of artificial intelligence can be complex and overwhelming, especially when understanding the various concepts related to GPT (Generative Pretrained Transformer) technology. In this blog post, I will demystify the most important concepts related to GPT, including OpenAI, GPT, ChatGPT, OpenAI Service in Azure, Copilot and more. Use this article as a cheat sheet that provides a clear and concise understanding of these essential GPT concepts.

The concepts discussed are listed below, with links to the article section if you want to jump ahead. I conclude with a simple image which is my interpretation of how this all fits together:





OpenAI Service in Azure

Copilot for M365 applications

Microsoft Graph



Prompt Engineering OpenAI API

OpenAI Playgrounds

What or who is OpenAI ?

First, it is useful to understand OpenAI, a research institute specialising in artificial intelligence (AI) and its applications. They aim to “promote and develop safe and beneficial AI that benefits all humanity.”

Some of the main services they created are:

  • GPT (Generative Pre-trained Transformer), a large language model (LLM) developed by OpenAI, uses machine learning algorithms to generate human-like text in response to user inputs. It can be used for various natural language processing (NLP) tasks, such as language translation, question answering, and text generation.
  • Codex – a model that converts natural language into code. This is also known as GitHub CoPilot.
  • DALL-E – a model that can produce images based on a natural language description.

What is GPT?

GPT is a large language model (LLM), a Generative Pre-trained Transformer developed by OpenAI. The model learns the relationships between words in a sentence or sequence of text and is trained on large amounts of text data. It can be fine-tuned on specific NLP tasks, allowing them to perform accurately and efficiently. GPT had several iterations:

  1. GPT-1: Released in 2018, it was the first version of the GPT model. It was trained on large text data and achieved state-of-the-art performance on several natural language processing tasks.
  2. GPT-2: Released in 2019, was is a larger and more powerful version of GPT-1. It was trained on an even larger volume of text data and was able to generate human-like text that is often difficult to distinguish from text written by humans.
  3. GPT-3: Released in 2020, with 175 billion parameters, making it one of the largest AI models ever developed. It can perform a wide range of natural language processing tasks, including language translation, question-answering, and text completion, all with impressive performance.
  4. GPT-3.5: This was a cross between GPT-3 and GPT-4. One of the main goals here was to increase the model speed.
  5. GPT-4: Improvements include a greater ability to process more nuanced instructions, an improvement over GPT-3, which often made logic and other reasoning errors when faced with more complex prompts. Another key distinction between GPT-3 and GPT-4 lies in their size. GPT-3 boasts 175 billion parameters, while GPT-4 takes it to, allegedly, 1 trillion parameters.

What are the Parameters?

Parameters represent the relationship between input and output through weights learned during training. It is essentially the knowledge and understanding the model has acquired from the text data it was trained on, which is essential for the model’s ability to perform well on specific NLP tasks.

What is ChatGPT, and is it the same as GPT?

ChatGPT is a specific implementation of the GPT architecture, which has been fine-tuned and trained on specifically conversational data, such as conversational text data held in online chat logs, to learn how to generate human-like responses to text inputs. ChatGPT is designed to be used for conversational interactions. ChatGPT is therefore well-suited for use in chatbots and other conversational AI applications. In essence, chatGPT allows you to interact with GPT-3.5, or GPT-4 in real time through a chat interface.

What is OpenAI Service in Azure?

Azure OpenAI is a partnership between Microsoft Azure and OpenAI to provide access to OpenAI’s AI models (GPT-3.5, Codex, and DALL-E), including ChatGPT, and tools through Microsoft’s cloud computing platform. It allows developers and organizations to leverage and combine the power of OpenAI’s AI models, with Azure resources (technologies) for various applications such as natural language processing, computer vision, data analysis, and reinforcement learning, coding, and many other exciting tasks on the near horizon. It is also worth noting the position of these Micosoft Offerings via OpenAI Service in Azure with regards to the OpenAI API which is discussed later on in this article.

What is Copilot, specifically for Microsoft 365 applications?

Built on GPT-4, Copilot is ChatGPT embedded into Microsoft 365 applications, Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Outlook, and Teams, and an orchestration engine working behind the scenes to combine GPT-4, with the Microsoft 365 applications and your business data in the Microsoft Graph (Teams, SharePoint and OneDrive). See this summary in the article What is Copilot for M365.

There are other Copilots, too, such as the GitHUB Copilot (see Codex).

What is Microsoft Graph (from the perspective of ‘business data’)?

Copilot for M365 can work with business data in Microsoft Graph. Graph is a platform and set of APIs that provide access to data and intelligence from Microsoft 365 services, such as SharePoint, OneDrive, and Teams. This means that Copilot can access users and groups, Teams data, Tasks, Files, Mail, Meetings and Calendars, etc.

What is Codex?

Codex is a deep learning algorithm trained on a vast amount of publicly available source code. It uses natural language processing (NLP) techniques to analyse and understand the code’s context.

What is DALL-E?

DALL-E is a model that uses a combination of neural networks and transformers trained on a large dataset of image-text pairs to generate images from textual descriptions.

Summary of differences between GPT, Codex and DALL-E:

GPT A​ Generative Pre-trained Transformer large language model (LLM) ​Trained on large volumes of data
​ChatGPT ​An implementation of GPT and uses natural language processing (NLP) techniques to analyse and understand the context of the text ​Fine-tuned and trained on specifically conversational data
​Codex A deep learning algorithm and also uses natural language processing (NLP) techniques to analyse and understand the context of the code ​Trained on a vast amount of publicly available source code
​DALL-E ​A combination of neural networks and transformers and also uses natural language processing (NLP) techniques to analyse and understand the context of the image Trained on a large dataset of image-text pairs

What is Prompt Engineering?

Prompt engineering is a technique used in natural language processing (NLP) that involves crafting a specific prompt or set of prompts to guide a language model’s generation of text in a desired direction. It is used to guide the model’s output towards the desired outcome. Prompt Engineering is important to ensure GPT, DALL-E and Codex are more useful and accurate. One could say that ‘prompting’ is how you “program” a model.

What is the OpenAI API?

The OpenAI API supports tasks that involve understanding or generating natural language (GPT), code (Codex), or images (DALL-E). It includes a wide variety of models (as is described here) and the ability to fine-tune custom ones. Three important concepts of the API are:


      • Prompts: The way you “program’ your model. See Prompt Engineering.

      • Tokens: Text is processed by breaking it down into tokens and 1 token is approx. 4 characters. The word ‘hamburger’ would equate to 3 tokens, and the word ‘car’ would be 1.


    • Models: Many are available, each designed for a slightly different purpose and cost. Models are described here.

Does Microsoft offerings (OpenAI Service in Azure) hit the OpenAI API:

It is worth noting that when working within Azure resources, this is what the OpenAI API states: “Azure OpenAI Service gives customers advanced language AI with OpenAI GPT-4, GPT-3, Codex, and DALL-E models with the security and enterprise promise of Azure. Azure OpenAI co-develops the APIs with OpenAI, ensuring compatibility and a smooth transition from one to the other. With Azure OpenAI, customers get the security capabilities of Microsoft Azure while running the same models as OpenAI. Azure OpenAI offers private networking, regional availability, and responsible AI content filtering.” – What is Azure OpenAI Service? – Azure Cognitive Services | Microsoft Learn

What is the OpenAI Playground?

The playground is simply an easier interface to get to the OpenAI API. It is designed to be accessible to a wide range of users of varying technical capabilities and can therefore be used to develop new ideas and applications for AI technology.

Note that the OpenAI Playground is also available in OpenAI Service in Azure.

These are only some of the concepts and only high-level descriptions of each. But it will hopefully allow you to navigate this exciting domain a bit easier. Below is my interpretation of how this all fits together.



This article was originally published here:

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